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Monday, February 21, 2011

OJEE Syllabus Lateral Entry BSc Biology Botany Paper-I

OJEE Syllabus Lateral Entry Stream BSc Biology BOTANY Paper-I
B.Sc. PAPER-I (B.Sc Biology)


Microbes : Viruses and Bacteria : General account of viruses and bacteria – structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance.

Diversity of seed plants : Characterstics of seed plants; evolution of the seed habit; seed plants with (angiosperms) and without (gymnosperms) fruits. Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts; anatomy of root, stem and leaf; Reproduction and life cycle of Cycas, Pinus and Ephedra. Botanical nomenclature : Principles and rules; taxonomic ranks; type concept; principle of priority. Classification of angiosperms; salient features of the systems proposed by Bentham and Hooker and Engler and Prantle. Major contributions of cytology, phytochemistry and taximetrics to taxonomy. Diversity of flowering plants as illustrated by members of the families : Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Apaceae, Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Solanaceae, Lamiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae and Poaceae.

Development & reproduction in flowering plants : The basic body plan of a flowering plant – modular type of growth. The shoot systems : the shoot apical meristem and its histological organization; vascularisation of primary shoot in monocotyledons and dicotyledons; formation of internodes, branching pattern; monopodial and sympodial growth; cambium and its functions; formation of secondary xylem; a general account of wood structure in relation to conduction of water and minerals; characteristics ofgrowth rings, sapwood and heart wood; secondary phloem – structure – function relationships; Leaf : origin, development, arrangement and diversity of size and shape; internal structure in relation to photosynthesis and water loss; adaptations to water stress; senescence and abscission. The root system : the root apical meristem; differentiation of primary and secondary tissues and their roles; structural modification for storage, respiration, reproduction and for interaction with microbes. Flower : a modified shoot; functions; structure of anther and pistil; the male and female gametophytes; types of pollination; pollen-pistil interaction, self incompatibility; double fertilization; formation of seed – endosperm and embryo; fruit development and maturation.

Cell Biology & Genetics : Structure and function of nucleus : Ultrastructure of nuclear membrane & nucleolus. Chromosome organization : Morphology; centromere and telomere; Chromosome alterations : deletions, duplications, translocations, inversions; Variations in chromosome number : aneuploidy, polyploidy; Sex chromosomes. DNA the genetic materials : DNA structure; replication; DNA- protein interaction; the nucleosome model; genetic code; satellite and repetitive DNA. Cell division : mitosis; meiosis. Genetic inheritance : Mendelism Linkage analysis; Allelic and nonallelic interactions. Gene expression : Structure of gene; transfer of genetic information; transcription, translation. Genetic variation : Mutations, spontaneous and induced; transposable genetic elements; DNA damage and repair. Extranuclear genome : Presence and function of mitochorndial and plastid DNA. Structure and function of other organelles : Golgi, ER, peroxisomes, vacuoles. The cell envelopes : Plasma membrane; functions; the cell wall.

Biochemistry: Basics of enzymology: Discovery and nomenclature; characteristics of enzymes; concept of holoenzyme, coenzyme and cofactors; regulation of enzyme activity; mechanism of enzyme action. Photosynthesis: Significance; historical aspects; photosynthetic pigments; action spectra and enhancement effects; Z-scheme; photophosphorylation; Calvin cycle; C4 pathway; CAM plants; photorespiration. Respiration: ATP – the biological energy currency; aerobic and anaerobic respiration; kreb’s cycle; electron transport mechanism (chemi-osmotic theory). Nitrogen and lipid metabolism : Biology of nitrogen fixation; importance of nitrate reductase and its regulation. Structure and function of lipids; fatty acids biosynthesis; oxidation; saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; storage and mobilization of fatty acids. The concept of photoperiodism; physiology of flowering; florigen concept; Physiology of senescence, fruit ripening; Plant hormones – auxins, gibberllins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene: history of their discovery biosynthesis and mechanism of action. Genetic engineering: Tools and techniques of recombinant DNA technology; cloning vectors; genomic and c-DNA-library transposable elements; techniques of gene mapping and chromosome walking.

Biotechnology : Functional definition; basic aspects of plant tissue culture; cellular totipotency, differentiation and morphogenesis; biology of Agrobacterium; Vectors for gene delivery and marker genes; salient achievements in crop biotechnology.

Ecology : Plants and environment : Atmosphere (gaseous composition), water (properties of water cycle), light (globalradiation, photosynthetically active radiation), temperature, soil (development, soil profiles, physico- chemical properties), and biota. Population ecology : Growth curves; ecotypes; ecads. Community ecology : Community characteristic, frequency, density, cover, life forms, biological spectrum; ecological succession. Ecosystems : Structure; abiotic and biotic components; food chain, food web, ecological pyramids, energy flow; biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Biogeographical regions of India : Vegetation types of India: Forests and grasslands.

Economic Botany : Food plants : Rice, wheat, maize, potato, sugarcane. Fibers : Cotton and jute. Vegetable oils : Groundnut, mustard and coconut. General account of sources of firewood, timber and bamboos : Spices :

General account. Medicinal plants : General account. Beverages : Tea and coffee. Rubber.


Diversity-I : Principles of classification – salient features and classification upto orders in non-chordates. Structural organization in different classes of non-chordates. Protozoa – Type study (paramecium), parasitic protozoans. Porifera and coelenterata – Type study (Sycon and Aurelia), Coral and coral reefs. Platyhelminthes and Nemathelminthes– Type study (Fasciola, Taenia) and parasitic adaptations. Annelida – Type study (Earthworm). Mollusca – Type study (Pila). Arthropoda – Crustacean larval forms, Type study (Prawn).

Cell Biology : Cell Theory. Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cellular organelles. Role of mitochondira in cellular energy transactions. Membrane transport of small molecules. Cell signallling. Cytoskeleton. Cell-division cycle. The mechanics of cell division (Mitosis and Meiosis). Cell junctions, cell adhesion. Biology of cancer.

Animal Diversity-II : Origin and general characters of chordates. Protochordates – Classfication upto orders, structural organization of Amphioxus, Balanoglossus and Herdmania. Agnatha – Classification upto orders. Fishes – Classification upto orders, Type study (Scoliodon). Amphibians – Origin of land vertebrates, classification upto orders, parental care. Reptiles – Classification upto orders, poisonous snakes of India. Bird migration, principles of bird flight, origin of birds. Mammals – Origin, classification and general characters. Comparative anatomy of systems (e.g. kidney, heart).

Physiology : Aim and Scope of Physiology – Cell Physiology, mammalian physiology, comparative physiology and applied physiology. Chemical foundations of physiology – solutions, osmotic pressure, diffusion, PK and pH, buffers. Biomolecules – Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Blood – Composition and function of blood; Blood groups; Blood coagulation;. Heart – Structure; origin, conduction and regulation of heart beat;. Respiration – Mechanism and control of breathing. Digestion and absorption of dietary components. Structure and function of kidney, physiology of urine formation. Physiology of contraction of skeletal and smooth muscle. Physiology of nervous conduction. Endocrine glands (Pituitary, Thyroid). Nature of enzymes.

Vertebrate Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology : 
Classification of hormones. Hormonal regulation of physiological processes – basic concepts. Hormones and human health – production of hormones as pharmaceuticals. Reproductive cycles in vertebrates. Fertilization in vivo and in vitro. Embryo transfer technology. Sex determination and sex differentiation. Endocrine disorders – brief description.

Evolution & Behaviour : Concept of Evolution. Origin of life on Earth. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Variations, mutations, recombination, Isolation, Natural selection. Concept of species and speciation. Mimicry. Population genetics, Genetic drift, Hardy-Weinberg Law. Evolution of Man. Introduction to Ethology – animal sense organs. Patterns of behaviour. Reproductive behavioural patterns. Social organization in animals, social interactions among individuals. Learning behaviour in animals. Drugs and behaviour.

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